© 1999 James A. Fowler

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I. Original manuscripts of the Bible.

    A. Old Testament written in Hebrew and Aramaic (Ezra, Daniel).
    B. New Testament written in koine Greek.
    C. No original manuscripts of the Bible remain to this day.

II. Types of early manuscripts.

    A. Papyri - written on reed material.
    B. Parchment - written on animal skins.
         1. Unical - capital letters
         2. Miniscule - cursive writing, 9th century and later.

III. Early translations of the Bible into other languages.

    A. Septuagint - (LXX) - Old Testament translated into Greek. c. 100 B.C.
    B. Latin translations
         1. Vetus Latina - early Latin translations.
         2. Vulgate - translated by Jerome. c. 400 A.D.
    C. Syriac - Peshitta
    D. Coptic translations.
    E. German translation. Luther's Bible. 1534.

IV. Greek editions. (Not exhaustive)

    A. Tischendorf
    B. Westcott and Hort
    C. Nestle-Aland
    D. United Bible Societies

V. Types of translations

    A. "Formal equivalence" - direct word-for-word translation.
    B. "Dynamic equivalence" - basic thoughts
    C. Paraphrase

VI. English translations. (Not exhaustive)

    A. Wycliffe Bible. 1384. (Catholic Church exhumed body ofWycliffe and burned it, along with
         copies of his translation that could be found.
    B. Tyndale Bible. 1530. (Martyred in Belgium after accused of heresy by the Catholic Church.)
    C. Coverdale Bible. 1535. (first complete English translation.)
    D. Cranmer's Bible; aka Matthew's Bible. 1539. Translated by John Rogers using pseudonym of
         Thomas Matthews.
    E. Geneva Bible. 1560.
    F. Bishop's Bible. 1568
    G. Douay Version (Catholic). 1610.
    H. King James Version (KJV). 1611. aka. Authorized Version (AV).
    I. Literal Translation of the Bible - Robert Young. 1862.
    J. Revised Version (RV). 1881.
    K. American Revised Version ; aka American Standard Version (ASV).
    L. Revised Standard Version (RSV). 1952.
    M. Modern Language Bible (MLB); aka Berkeley Version. 1959
    N. New American Standard Bible (NASB). 1963.
    O. Amplified Bible (AB). 1964.
    P. Jerusalem Bible (JB). (Catholic). 1966.
    Q. New American Bible (NAB). (Catholic). 1970
    R. New English Bible (NEB). 1970
    S. Living Bible (LB). 1971
    T. King James II Version - Jay Green. 1971.
    U. Good News Bible (GNB), aka. Today's English Version (TEV). 1976.
    V. New International Version (NIV). 1979.
    W. New King James Version (NKJV). 1982.
    X. Reader's Digest Bible (RDB). 1982
    Y. New Revised Standard Version (NRSV). 1990.
    Z. New Evangelical Translation (NET). 1994.

VII. Modern Study Bibles.

    A. Scofield Reference Bible. 1917.
    B. Open Bible.
    C. Ryrie Study Bible.
    D. Thompson Chain Reference Bible.
    E. Oxford Study Bible.



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