© 1999 James A. Fowler

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I. Representative Biblical references to "salvation"

    A. Old Testament
         1. Heb. words yasha, yesha - deliverance, help, salvation - Ps. 37:39; 38:22; 51:12,14;
              Isa. 30:15; 43:11; Jere. 23:6.
              (Name of "Jesus" derived from this Hebrew root - Matt. 1:21)
         2. Heb. word malat - to escape, to be safe - Ps. 116:4; Jere. 51:45
         3. Heb. word nasal - to deliver, free, pull out - Prov. 14:21
         4. Jewish concept of "salvation"
              a. predominantly physical deliverance - national, individual
              b. usually projected such in the future
              c. looked forward to Messianic deliverance and salvation
    B. New Testament
         1. Greek words sozo (107), soteria (46), soter (24), soterion (4), soterios (1), diasozo (8)
              a. Get theological term "soteriology" - study of salvation
         2. Range of meaning in Greek - physical safety, cure or healing from illness, rescue,               deliverance, liberation, protection, keep alive, keep in good health, preserve well-being,               benefit, develop wholeness or peace, make secure, bring victory
              a. to make safe from danger, peril, judgment
              b. to make safe for, to, unto health, benefit, victory
              c. Wm. Barclay - "most common meaning - bodily health"
         3. Greeks applied "savior" to their gods, philosophers and politicians
         4. Christian concept of "salvation" invested words with new meaning
              a. predominantly spiritual deliverance and function
              b. based on the Person and work of Jesus Christ
              c. primarily a present experience with future consummation
         5. Representative usages
              Matt. 1:21 - "you shall call His name Jesus...He will save His people from their sins"
              John 3:17 - "that the world should be saved through Him"
              Acts 4:12 - "salvation in no one else; no other name by which we must be saved"
              Rom. 1:16 - "gospel...the power of God for salvation to every one who believers"
              Rom. 5:10 - "we shall be saved by His life"
              Rom. 10:9 - "confess Jesus as Lord...you shall be saved..."
              Eph. 2:8,9 - "by grace you have been saved through faith..."
              I Thess. 5:9 - "God has destined us for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ"
              I Tim. 1:15 - "Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners"
              Titus 1:4 - "God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior"
              Titus 2:11 - "grace of God appeared, bringing salvation to all men"
              I Pet. 1:5 - "a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time"
              II Pet. 1:1 - "our God and Savior, Jesus Christ"

II. Biblical associations with "salvation"

    A. Salvation by grace of God - II Cor. 6:1,2; Eph. 2:5,8; II Tim. 1:9; Tit. 2:11
    B. Salvation in Jesus Christ, the Savior - Acts 4:12; I Thess. 5:9; I Tim. 1:15
    C. Salvation available to all - I Tim. 2:4; Tit. 2:11; II Pet. 3:9
    D. Salvation received by faith - Eph. 2:8; I Pet. 1:5
    E. Salvation is "good news" - Rom. 1:16; I Cor. 15:1,2; Eph. 1:13
    F. Salvation from judgment - Rom. 5:9; I Thess. 1:10; II Thess. 2:10
    G. Salvation and forgiveness - Acts 5:31
    H. Salvation and the kingdom - Lk. 13:23; II Tim. 4:18
    I. Salvation and time perspective
         1. Past
              a. objective - II Tim. 1:9; Titus 2:11
              b. subjective - Eph. 2:8,9; Titus 3:5
         2. Present
              a. indicative - I Cor 1:18; II Cor. 2:15; 6:2; Heb. 7:25; James 1:21; I Peter 1:9
              b. imperative
                  (1). grow - I Pet. 2:2
                  (2). endure - Matt. 10:22; 24:13; Mk. 13:13; Rom. 8:25
                  (3). work out - Phil. 2:12
                  (4). good works - Eph. 2:10; James 2:17,26
         3. Future - Rom. 13:11; I Thess. 5:8; I Tim. 4:16; I Pet. 1:5
    J. Salvation and regeneration - Jn. 3:16; Tit. 3:5
    K. Salvation and sanctification - II Thess. 2:13; II Tim. 1:9

III. Theological considerations of "salvation"

    A. Comprehensive usage of salvation terminology
         1. Limitation of much evangelical usage
         2. Most comprehensive of all soteriological terms
    B. Exclusivity of salvation
         1. Universalist, pluralist and inclusivist viewpoints
         2. Exclusivist or particularist viewpoints - Jn. 14:6; Acts 4:12
    C. Order of salvation - ordo salutis
         1. Logical or chronological order of soteriological realities: revelation, repentance, faith,
              confession, regeneration, conversion, adoption, justification, spiritual union, baptism,
              sanctification, preservation, obedience, endurance, lordship, glorification, etc.
         2. "Lordship salvation" debate
    D. Process of salvation
         1. "Salvation history" - Heilsgeschichte; God's saving work in progressive history of mankind.
         2. Salvation as process in experience of individual
              a. some fear this implies performance "works" salvation
              b. denial of only punctiliar event or experience
         3. "Saving life of Christ" - Rom. 5:10
    E. Functionality of salvation
         1. Salvation is not...
              a. a theological category or logical premise
              b. a static commodity that can be dispensed
         2. Salvation is the dynamic activity of the living Savior - I Cor. 1:30
         3. Salvation is the ontological expression of the life of Jesus
         4. Working definition: "Salvation is the process of being made safe from misused and               dysfunctional humanity, and thereby to be restored to the functionality God intended by               allowing the dynamic of the ontological Person and work of the Savior, Jesus Christ, to               express His divine character in man to the glory of God.
    F. Revocability of salvation
         1. Preservation of God - I Cor. 1:8; Phil. 1:6; I Pet. 1:5
         2. Apostasy and alienation - Jn. 15:6; Gal. 5:4 ; Heb. 6:4-6



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